Hull Geological Society


News archive 2013- 2014


(updated 16 May 2016)


Thursday 4th December 2014 - (evening lecture) by Dr Rebecca Williams of Hull University - “A volcanologist at sea: studying the Louisville Seamounts with IODP”.

The Louisville seamount trail (LST) is a 4300-km-long time-progressive chain of seamounts in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Five of the seamounts in the older 2000 km section of the chain were drilled during IODP Expedition 330: Canopus (~76 Ma), Rigil (~72.5 Ma), Burton (~64 Ma), Achernar (~58.5 Ma) and Hadar (~50 Ma). Expedition 330 was designed to test the idea that mantle hotspots are not fixed, as demonstrated for the Hawaii-Emporer Hotspot which shows a ~15°southwards movement between 80 and 47 Ma. An abundance of fresh volcanic material was recovered which has allowed detailed geochemical analysis. The seamounts appear to be composed of transitional to alkaline basalt, in contrast to the Emperor seamounts which are dominantly tholeiitic. There is no significant variation in basalt composition with depth in the core through the shield-building phase on any of the seamounts. A small but significant systematic variation in the relative enrichment in incompatible trace elements and isotope ratios with time can be explained by a decrease in partial melting. This may be recording the slow dying out of the hotspot, as the chain’s youngest volcano is over 1 million years old. Life at sea as a scientist is an exciting one. This talk will also address what it is like to be a scientist on board an ocean drilling expedition.



Professor Martin Brasier died in a car crash on 20th December 2014. He had been a lecturer at the University of Hull and then moved to Oxford University when the Geology Department was closed in 1988. He had returned to Hull to speak to the Society on a number of occasions and was the author of the "Microfossils" textbook.

Saturday 22nd November 2014 - (afternoon lecture starting at 2-15pm)

A re-interpretation of the physiographic evolution of the southern end of the Vale of York from the mid-Pleistocene to Early Holocene. by Dr Bill Fairburn


The recognition and mapping of planar terraces on the York Moraine led to the belief that these were shorelines of the Late Devensian proglacial Lake Humber and the hypothesis that the progressive demise of the lake was recognizable from stillstands (Fairburn,2009). To test this, landform mapping was initiated across the Vale of York and the flanks of the Wolds between Pocklington and Hessle to identify and record planar land surfaces, which had distinct topographic boundaries resulting from erosional and depositional processes.

The results of this study confirmed the earlier shoreline mapping and identified strandlines, at lower elevations, down to a terminal lake level of 5.0 m OD. In addition, two sets of alluvial fans, originating from dry valleys in the Wolds from frost-fractured Chalk formation were recognized. The older set were terraced by shorelines of Lake Humber, in contrast to the younger set. An additional objective was to establish a chronology for key mapped landforms based on luminescence dating of sand samples from shoreline deposits and younger fluvial events.

The main conclusions of the research are that the older periglacial alluvial fans are from a previous glacial period (possibly MIS 8) and that the younger Late Devensian (MIS 2) glaciation retreated north of the York Moraine about 17 ka BP prior to the main phase of impounding Lake Humber. The dating of this event is based on the age for high-level Lake Humber of c.16.6 ka (Bateman et al.,2008). The existing two stage model of proglacial Lake Humber is revised. Mapped shorelines of the lake now define an 8-stage regressive decline model for Lake Humber, from a high-level Stage 1 at 42 m OD down to a low-level (partly fluvial) Stage 8 at 5.0 m OD. Mapping has also revealed that present southerly decline of the Vale of York is testimony to Holocene flooding and not to isostasy; the gravels forming the Crockey Hill esker probably originated as a fan delta from a drainage gap in the York Moraine and that the terraces in the Aire and Calder valleys are coeval with stands of Lake Humber.


Bateman,M.D., Buckland, P.C.,Chase,B., Frederick, C.D. & Gaunt, G.D. 2008. The Late Devensian proglacial Lake Humber; new evidence from littoral deposits at Ferrybridge, England. Boreas, 37, 195-210.

Fairburn, W. A. 2009. Landforms and geological evolution of the Vale of York during the Late Devensian. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 57, 145-153.


1956 Graduated from Durham University with an Honours degree in Geology

1956-1960 With the then Overseas Geological Survey in Kenya.

1960-1963 Employed as a mine Geologist on a manganese mine in Guiana

1964-1996 Involved in mineral and petroleum exploration in Australia.

1996-2006 Mapping the geology of the vineyards in McLaren Vale and the Barossa Valley in South Australia.

2006- Mapping in the Vale of York prior to arriving in Sheffield to write a Ph.D.Thesis


Thursday 20th November 2014 - (evening lecture) - Dr Eline van Asperen of Liverpool John Moores University - "When hippos roamed Yorkshire - People, prey and predators in the Last Interglacial".


The Last Interglacial, the last warm period before the last ice age, lasted from ca. 125,000 to 110,000 years ago. During this period, the climate and largely forested environment are thought to have been similar over large stretches of northern Europe. The warm and humid conditions enabled a large variety of warmth-loving animals to extend their range northwards, and hippos could be found as far north as North Yorkshire. Though the British Isles had a similar climate to the European mainland at this time, certain key species, including humans, are so far missing from British Last Interglacial faunas. The talk will address the question why, in contrast to other warm periods during the ice ages, humans were absent from the British Isles. Did the rapidly rising sea level prevent humans from reaching Britain? Had they moved too far south during the preceding cold spell to make it in time? Or is their absence related to geographical distributions of their prey species and competing predators?


Dr. Eline van Asperen is a Leverhulme Early Career Postdoctoral Fellow at Liverpool John Moores University. Eline trained as an archaeologist with an interest in early prehistory at Leiden University, The Netherlands. From 2006 to 2010, she studied for her PhD in Pleistocene mammalian biostratigraphy at the University of York. Eline’s research focuses on the interactions between ice age humans and large mammals. Current projects focus on the influence of climatic and environmental factors on dietary variability in ice age rhinoceroses, and the use of fossil fungal spores for reconstructing animal-plant relationships.


Gordon Ostler died of Tuesday 26th October. He had been a member of the Society for 18 years and had published articles and booklets about local geology and history. A mass was held in his memory on 5th December which members of the Society attended.


Thursday 23rd October 2014 - (evening lecture) - Professor Peter Styring of the University of Sheffield on "Carbon Dioxide Utilization: the alternative to geological landfill" .


"It is largely agreed that in order to mitigate climate change, so method for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is essential. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been proposed as a solution. This involves sequesrtration of CO2 in geological formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and saline aquifers. However, this is simply geological landfill: treating CO2 as a waste, with associated disposal costs. By contrast, Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) treats CO2 as a valuable commodity chemical that can be chemically transformed into value-added platform chemicals and fuels. This is a potentially profitable exercise. This talk will consider some of the techno-economic options provided by CDU."


Saturday 11th October 2014 - "Regarding Dynamic Processes: Shifting Relations between Geology & the Visual Arts " - a joint meeting with the Yorkshire Geological Society and the Hull College of Art and Design. Click here for abstracts.

There also was an open photographic exhibition at this event: the topic is "The Aesthetics of Geology" Click here for an more details .


Friday 12th September until Sunday 26th October 2014 - Art Exhibition: "On the Endless Here".

Venue: Studio Eleven Gallery, 11 Humber Street, Hull's Fruit Market, Kingston Upon Hull, HU1 1TG.

Gallery Opening Times: Friday, Saturday & Sunday weekly from 11am-4pm

Information on Exhibition: 'On the Endless Here' is the result of a series of collaborative field trips and dialogue between 6 multidisciplinary artists and the geologist members of the Flamborough Quaternary Research Group of the Hull Geological Society. The exhibition explores perspectives on the passing of geological time, questions the current physical landscape and draws upon the narratives of the geologists themselves.

Yorkshire Geology Month 2014 is being organised by Paul Hildreth of the Yorkshire Geological Society. A full listing of the 32 events is available on the YGS website.

These are the HGS contributions to YGM 2014 -

Yorkshire Geology Month will be launched at Caphouse Colliery on Saturday 27 April. "The event will be free of charge and open to all. Bring your rocks, minerals and fossils for identification by experts. Rocks, minerals and fossil exhibits and poster displays from local geological societies and companies. Sales of leaflets and guide books. From 10.30 am to 1.30 pm there will be short talks by experts, short walks to see the local rock exposure on the Museum site and underground tours. From 1.00 pm to 5.00 pm there will be lectures". The HGS plans to have a display at the event, so please come along and help.

Saturday 10th May 2014 - Rock and Fossil Roadshow at the Treasure House, Beverley. Organised by Stuart Jones and Rod Towse, open to the public from 11 am to 3 pm, admission free; sorry - no valuations.

63 members of the public visited the event and 10 volunteers from the Society took part.

Sunday 11th May - Urban geology walk in Hull led by Mike Horne. Meet outside the Tourist Information Office at City Hall, Queen Victoria Square at 10-15 am. Lasts about 2 hours, bring a magnifying glass.

Saturday 17th May - "A Walk on the Woldside" led by Derek Gobbett. Meet at Cross Keys pub in Thixendale [SE845611] at 1330 hrs. A circular walk of about 3 hours to see aspects of typical Wold landscape as moulded by climate changes in the Quaternary. Walking 6 km, climbing 150 m. Almost all on footpaths. Steep grassy slopes optional. The walking is not suitable for very young children /pushchairs and could be a bit much for the over eighty's. Walking boots desirable but not essential. Hard hats not required.

Eight members and guests attended this meeting.

Sunday 18th May - walk at Sewerby led by Ian Heppenstall and Stuart Jones. A walk from Sewerby Steps to the North Promenade at Bridlington studying the Geology and other features of the cliffs and beach. Starting at the bottom of Sewerby Steps at 1315 hours, the walk will take about an hour at the most and it is an easy walk along the cliff top to return to the car park at Sewerby.

Seven members and one guest attended the meeting.

Sunday 1st June - walk at Danes Dyke led by Ian Heppenstall and Stuart Jones "The Geology in the Vicinity of Danes Dyke". A look at the south entrance to Danes Dyke and the features on each side of it coupled with a short walk to look at some features in the cliffs to the west of the Dyke. Starting near the kiosk at the Car Park at 1315 hours the tour will take one and a half hours at the most following which people may stay on the beach or return to the car park.

Seven members and guests attended this meeting.

Sunday 15th June - walk at South Landing led by Ian Heppenstall "The Geology of Flamborough South Sea Landing". Starting at the lifeboat house shop at 1315 hours we will first walk to East Nook from where we will walk along the line of the cliff to West Nook looking at the various geological features and with descriptions of some of the historic features of South Landing as we go. The walk should take one and a half hours at the most.


Former HGS member Gillian Hughes died in April 2014. She joined the Society in 1990 and was an active member for a number of years. She also studied geology with the Open University and Hull University Adult Education. There are some pictures of Gill on the HGS website archive pages.

Tuesday 18th March 2014 - (evening lecture) - Dr Martyn Pedley of Hull University on "The San Leonardo Beds of Malta and their significance in unravelling the Quaternary of the Maltese Islands "

Abstract -

The Late Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary record within the Maltese islands is very fragmentary and has generally been ignored by sedimentologists. Local stratigraphies for parts of the Quaternary have been erected from vertebrate remains contained in Quaternary cave and fissure deposits of the islands. However, no coherent correlation scheme has been proposed in which to encompass them. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of datable fossils within the majority of Quaternary deposits. Considerable progress in resolving these problems is, however, possible if recourse is made to the post-Messinian (Late Miocene) erosion features evidenced in the topography of the islands. In particular, a hitherto unrecognized marine erosion surface, the San Leonardo Marine Abrasion Surface, is described and dated by reference to the marine deposits (San Leonardo Beds) lying directly above it and similarities to contemporaneous SE Sicily marine deposits. This provides an end-Calabrian Stage (Emilian Sub-Stage) base line upon which to hang fragmentary information on later events that have shaped the topography of the Maltese islands. From this it can be confirmed that a tectonic deformation event spanning latest Messinian to mid- Pliocene times uplifted the islands and reactivated previously incipient graben systems. This deformation episode is shown to have ceased within the islands well before the early Calabrian (before c. 1.6 Ma). Subsequent minor regional uplift and eustacy together with subaerial weathering processes have been the principal agents in shaping the islands. Collectively, these processes have prevented terrestrial animal migrations into the Maltese islands from North Africa since Messinian times. However, the infrequent re-establishment of a marine lowstand isthmus virtually linking Malta with SE Sicily has permitted opportunistic animal migrations into the islands and the presence of these greatly aids in dating the sedimentological events.


Tuesday 10th December 2013 - Members' Evening - abstracts.

Derek Gobbett - "Torrent Scars"

'Small gullies running straight down the steep sides of dry valleys are common on the Yorkshire Wolds. I have called these "Torrent Scars". They are clearly erosive features but their origin is not immediately obvious. This talk produces evidence on how they were formed and looks briefly at historical records of Wolds floods. The impressive Snevver Scar is considered to be a large example of a Torrent Scar rather than a glacial meltwater channel.'

Ian Heppenstall - "A Look around Malham in Airedale."

"The spectacular scenery near Malham village is well known to Geologists and Geographers. In this display are maps through the ages, photographs and other material about Malham and Gordale with particular emphasis on the Tufa deposits on the face of the waterfall in Gordale Scar. The display also incudes some photographs of prominent features of the Yokshire Dales landscape taken from some of the higher peaks within the Parish Boundary of Malham and some information concerning mining in the area."

Ian Heppenstall - "The Ipswichian Buried Cliff"

"During the Ipswichian Interglacial, between 128,000 and 116,000 years ago during a warm period the sea cut a new cliff line along the edge of the Yorkshire Wolds as they were then as a result of rising sea levels. As sea levels fell when the warm period began to end and cooler, then cold climatic conditions took over and the cliff line along with its beach and wave cut platform was left exposed to the new conditions and eventually became covered - finally by deposits of boulder clay from an ice lobe which probably arrived then retreated at the end of the last ice age which we know as the Devensian Ice Age.

"Following the realisation of the existence of the cliff during the C19th. an exposure near Sewerby was excavated and has been examined and re-examined ever since by geologists and students. At the present time members of the Flamborough Quaternary Research Group of the Hull Geological Society monitor the changes which occur at the site along with changes to some other related geological formations along the present day cliff line between Sewerby and Bridlington. During the talk we will view some of the recent history of this section of the coast along with some photographs, old and new, of the site and related formations."

John Upton - "Global climate change, New York, Spurn Peninsular and the Humber Estuary flooding."

"Climate and weather? A brief coverage of IPCC reports and other scientific data and the implications for humanity. Super Storm Sandy and New York. Blue Ribbon Report. The decision has been taken by the Environment Agency to "let Spurn go". The same decision has been taken for a major part of the Yorkshire coastline. 1952 and what all these changes may mean for the region."

Paul Hildreth - "The Frodingham Ironstone - the rock that built Scunthorpe."

"The Frodingham Ironstone is a bed of Lower Jurassic age comprising a complex of sediment types with varying amounts of iron. Technological advances developed in the 19th century, together with improvements in local communications, notably rail links, led to the extensive extraction of the rock as a raw material for the hungry and expanding iron and steel industry. The rock is also very well known to fossil collectors (and sadly dealers) as a source of well- and often beautifully preserved fossils.

"This illustrated talk covers the discovery of the Frodingham Ironstone, its early extraction and use, its character and stratigraphy and finally offers a view on how the deposit was formed. There will also be some slides of Frodingham Ironstone 'pin-ups'!"

Rodger Connell, Stuart Jones, Derek Gobbett and Mike Horne - "So...... how many "Bridlington Crags" are there? Ongoing work with the Penny Collection"

'Masses of shell rich marine clays (and associated glauconitic sands) within, what is now termed, the Basement Till of Holderness were first documented by the eminent geologists Sedgwick, Phillips and Lyell in the 1820s and 1830s at Bridlington. At the time it was thought the deposit might be of similar age to the Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Crags (shelly sands and gravels) of East Anglia - hence the name Bridlington Crag. Lamplugh was fortunate to observe the deposit first hand in the 1880s when Bridlington north shore was stripped of sand after storms. Three to four tons of the clay was collected by a Mr Headley at the time and an extensive macro and micro fauna was recovered. Lamplugh also noted a mass of clay with a "peaty seam" which he believed was a terrestrial deposit. Whilst some of the material had a range of small clasts within it Lamplugh only recorded small phosphatic "lumps" from the main clay masses which he considered to be derived from the Speeton Clay. He interpreted the masses of marine clay to have been deposited in an arctic environment which were ripped from the sea floor by the ice sheet that deposited the Basement Till. Much later Catt and Penny (1966) considered the rafts to date from the late Hoxnian, with the enclosing Basement Till believed to be of "Wolstonian" age, the glaciation preceding the Ipswichian (Sewerby) interglacial. A number of masses of Bridlington Crag were again exposed on the north shore in 1964 after storms. Palynological and microfossil (coccoliths) analyses from samples collected then were published in the 1970s. The coccolith assemblage indicated derivation from restricted Kimmeridge Clay to Chalk bedrock sources and the palynology an Early Pleistocene date. As yet unpublished in detail amino acid analyses from shells from the same exposures also suggest an Early or Early Middle Pleistocene date for the sediment. Bulk samples of the material collected from the Bridlington exposures in 1964 are curated in the Penny Collection at Hull University and in the Hull and East Riding Museum. Recent work has confirmed the very limited clast assemblage in the Bridlington material and new palynological analyses are being undertaken to help clarify the age and provenance of the deposit.

'Similar erratic masses (rafts) of shelly clay are also known from within the Basement Till at Dimlington, south Holderness. Erratic clasts and shells collected from a large raft exposed in the 1950s and 60s are curated in the Penny Collection, University of Hull. The macro and micro fauna is generally considered to be similar to that recovered from the Bridlington material, but in contrast the collection contains a rich and varied set of erratic pebbles and cobbles. Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary lithologies are present, with some igneous rocks definitely from the Oslo Graben in southern Norway. The shells in the extant collection contain some species that may have required different environmental conditions suggesting that material from varying environments may be incorporated into the rafts. Work is ongoing to further identify the sources of the erratic rocks from Dimlington and sediment enclosed by some of the shells will be used for palynological analyses. It is possible that the material from the two sites either have a different provenance or a different age.

'Lamplugh recorded a third site in 1890 with an arctic macrofauna and apparently enclosed within the Basement Till in the eastern cliffs at South Landing on Flamborough Head. Recently collected samples from this poorly exposed material suggest it does resemble Bridlington Crag lithologies from the other two sites. Interestingly the few clasts recovered from the sediment are dominated by greywackes possibly from southern Scotland. Again palynological analyses are being undertaken to help clarify the age and provenance of the fine grained sediment. At this site the sediment is apparently associated with till that resembles Skipsea Till at sites to the south. The FQRG has obtained a preliminary OSL age estimate of ~55.7 ka from sands beneath the deposit suggesting that the South Landing site is within an assemblage that dates to the last, Devensian, glaciation rather than one that preceded the Ipswichian interglacial.

'All three sites considered to belong to the "Bridlington Crag" appear to have significantly different clast assemblages. Does this indicate different provenance or age? Whilst at two of the sites (Bridlington and Dimlington) the erratic rafts are within the Basement Till at the third site (South Landing) the material is within a Devensian context. Palynological analyses are being undertaken to determine if there are similar age diagnostic taxa at the three sites. Unfortunately we have so far failed to discover the mollusc species required for modern amino acid geochronology in the collections, though work on the microfauna (foraminifers or ostracods) may be possible in the future. Work continues on the clast assemblages, macro and microfaunas and floras in an attempt to clarify the palaeoenvironment, age and provenance of the material termed the "Bridlington Crag".'


Thursday 21st November 2013 - (evening lecture) Prof. Patrick Boylan "The significance of Charles Darwin's month in the High Andes, March - April 1835"

Abstract -

"Though now known mainly for his pioneering work on evolution, Charles Darwin was primarily a geologist in the earlier years of his scientific career. Among other things after Cambridge he assisted Adam Sedgwick in his work unravelling the complex Lower Palaeozoics of North Wales, and on his return from the almost five years of the second round the world voyage of the naval survey ship HMS Beagle he was from 1837 to 1841 Secretary of the Geological Society of London.

"Following a long period of severe seasickness round the coast of South America Darwin went ashore in the Chilean port of Valparaiso for just one month in March - April 1835 while the Beagle carried out some detailed surveying of the coastline. He quickly engaged a local guide and 10 mules in Santiago, and set off to cross the high Andes and back in the deteriorating weather of the southern hemisphere's Autumn. He crossed first via the 7,000 ft. high Portillo Pass to the city of Mendoza in Argentina, and then back to Valparaiso through the 13,000 ft. high Uspallata Pass through the foothills of Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the world outside the Himalayas. Armed with copies of Darwin's journals and notebooks, and in the equivalent season of the year, Patrick and Pam Boylan flew to Mendoza and then set out to track down on the ground the footsteps of "Carlos Darwin", as he is celebrated there. This took them through some of the world's most spectacular geology and scenery - though with the aid of a Renault Clio with a high altitude engine management computer adjustment, rather than Darwin's mule train! "


Click here for abstracts from the 125th Anniversary meetings.


Yorkshire Geology Month 2013 events -

Saturday 27th April - Launch of Yorkshire Geology Month 2013 at Caphouse Colliery; lectures, walks and underground tours.

Sunday 5th May - (field meeting) Grassington led by Ian Heppenstall for Yorkshire Geology Month.

Saturday 18th May - (field meeting) "The Secrets of the Chalk – Flamborough Head" led by Paul Hildreth.

This is a field trip aimed at all levels of geological interest and experience. It is planned to provide an introduction to the lithostratigraphy of the Chalk Group of northern England and to make a brief study of the fault zone affecting the chalk of Selwick’s Bay. I hope to introduce less experienced members of the party to methods used in the study of structural patterns and in logging sections and provide them with the opportunity of making their own recordings.

The day will contain the following topics/demonstrations/opportunities:

The timetable is planned so that we work on a falling tide. As an approximation, we will spend about 2.5 hours at Selwick’s Bay and 2 hours at North Landing.

Sunday 19th May - (field meeting) Urban Geology Walk led by Mike Horne.


Thursday 21st March 2013 - (evening lecture and Annual General Meeting) Dr John Knight of Harworth Minerals Consultancy on "Resources to Reserves- a sometimes rocky road".

Abstract -

"Resource geologists are a group of professionals, working between explorationists, economic geologists and mining geologists, whose role is the provision of professionally competent validated disclosure on mineral resources and reserves, on which decisions for investment can be made. The role of the resource geologist must be performed in accordance with the now widely accepted concept of the Competent Person or the Qualified Person and has developed in response to the recurrent frauds and scams which have beset the minerals industry. This presentation will briefly review the characteristics of the Bre-X fraud of the late 1990s and the impact this has had on reserves and resources reporting and standards for disclosure of information on mineral properties. Notwithstanding the tight framework for such reports there remain, as ever, significant areas of discretion subject to interpretation. With reference to a range of specific aspects requiring careful and detailed focus for reporting, the presentation will review a number of commercially active mineral properties, in Europe, North America, Latin America and Central Asia. For these properties, the geological framework and mineralisation characteristics will be discussed and the challenges these can present for compliant reporting of resources and reserves. Some ore and mineral specimens from the referenced properties will be available for further discussion."


Thursday 21st February 2013 - (evening lecture) Prof. Mark Bateman of Sheffield University on "The ice that built the Holderness landscape"

Abstract -

"That large parts of the area of Holderness was covered in ice sometime around the Last Glacial Maximum (~21,000 years ago) is not in doubt. The area is after all covered in a clay based glacial diamict which contains lots of geological 'erratic' material brought from afar by the ice. The question really is how did ice end up on Holderness when it is so far from areas of the UK where ice is known to have formed and flowed from? Also when did this occur and how does this relate to other glacial advances and the climate at the time? This talk will look at some of the existing sites which have examined the glaciations of Holderness as well as some of the new research which has changed both ideas of timing and the type of glaciation which shaped Holderness. "


Thursday 17th January 2013 - (evening lecture) Ian Heppenstall of the Hull Geological Society on "A History of the Glacial Formations at South Landing, Danes Dyke and the Sewerby Buried Cliff over the last 120 years in old and new photographs and maps: Recent processes of deposition and erosion."

Abstract -

" Following the talk given by me at the joint HGS/YGS meeting in 2009 and that by Rodger [Connell] in October this year, plus having attended some of our field trips most of our members will be familiar with the work of the Flamborough Quaternary Research Group and that we have been able to date some of the glacial deposits filling the valleys at Danes Dyke and South Landing and work out the sequence of deposition. In our discussions we have wondered how much the deposits, and the cliffs on each side of them, have eroded since the end of the Devensian period and how much in the last hundred years or so. Having an interest in local history it was my suggestion that we may be able to discover this from old photographs and maps and over a period of time I began to put an album together along with some of the many photographs which I have taken over the last ten years. As this developed I began, also, to find out many other facts about features of the coast which we would not generally consider to be geological but add to the colourful story of the geology by explaining those features and taking the dating of erosion further back in time.

"As I put the powerpoint display together I studied the sequences and began to discover even more interesting facts and began to formulate new theories and questions with the result that this evenings talk will not only provide an interesting geological history but also an introduction to some local history of the coast and hopefully fire up your own enthusiasm so that you will not only join us in our field trips but also ask your own questions and provide answers so that we may add to our knowledge of the processes which have occurred in the past and may occur in the future along this section of the Yorkshire Coast."




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